Analysis Of When This Carnival Finally Closes By Jack Mapanje

Not all 14-line poem is a sonnet; and this one by Jack Mapanje is a good example. It is a free verse that centred on politics and leadership. The diction is quite simple and rurual-like in nature with a beach setting in terms of words like “bamboo” “dancers” “bonfire” and more.

The voice of the poem foresaw what will become of the actions of a certain leader referred to as “brother”. The voice of the poem also saw how the leader’s colleagues will betray and mock his reign_ line 2-4:
“…these very officers
Will burn the scripts of the praises we sang to you
And shatter the calabashes you drank from”.
The voice of the poem believed the activities of the leader was unnecessary; in line 1 it was referred to as a “frothful carnival” because his officers were not faithful; they will go to the extent of burning his bamboo hut under the guise of giving him a “true traditional burial”.

According to line 6 “Become the accomplices to your lie-achieved world!” proves the voice of the poem is certain that the leader’s ways are not straight; he’s a corrupt leader. This tells the readers that the voice of the poem is an unbiased one who sincerely hits the  nail in the head.

There are other noted poetic devices in the poem titled “When This Carnival Finally Closes” by Jack Mapanje; and they are as follows:
(1) “scripts of the praise” in line 3 is a metaphor
(2) “drumming veins” in line 2 is a symbolism
(3) “…a God? The devil!” in line 14 is an oxymoron
(4) “bamboo hut on the beach” in line 7 is an alliteration
(5) “And at the wake new mask dancers will quickly leap” in line 11 is an imagery
(6) “What did he think he would become, a God? The devil!” in line 14 is a rhetorical question
(7) “And shatter the calabashes you drank from . Your/ Charms, these drums, and the effigies blazing will” in line 4-5 is an enjambment

The themes are betrayal, change, governance, politics, death, achievement, waste, corruption, etc. In terms of betrayal, the voice of the poem foresaw the leader’s betrayal. Change in the poem is seen from line 11-13:
“And at the wake new mask dancers will quickly leap
Into the arena dancing to tighter skins, boasting
Other clans of calabashes…”
Governance and politics can be considered the motivation for crafting this poem “When This Carnival Finally Closes” by Jack Mapanje. Death was not directly mentioned in the poem but was suggested with phrases such as “drumming veins dry” “giving their hero a true traditional burial”. The achievement of the leader is linked to corruption when the voice of the poem referred to it as “your lie-achieved world!”

As of this moment, whenever Malawian poets come to mind the first name to remember is David Rubadiri followed by Jack Mapanje. He was born 25 March 1944 in Mangochi District of Malawi. Jack Mapanje has made the list of African poets whose poetry landed them in prison; other African poets of the same predicament are Chris Abani, Wole Soyinka, etc. Jack Mapanje was put in prison by a ruling tyrant without charge.

Samuel C. Enunwa aka samueldpoetry
(the Leo with wings flying)

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At Fifteen I Went With The Army by Arthur Waley

THE ANALYSIS
A boy went with the army to a war at the age of fifteen but met a desolate or rather deserted home at the age of eighty .When he got to the village, he couldn’t recognize his home until a man he met in the village showed him what used to be his house (now outgrown by weeds, trees, and pheasants). According to line 9-10
“In the courtyard was growing some wild grain;
And by the well, wild mallows.”

The house was so taken by weeds to the extent that he made porridge and soup off the grains; sadly “no one to eat them with”. The unhappiness of the boy even extended till the end of the poem where he said
“I went out and looked towards the east,
While tears fell and wetted my clothes”

Probably, one may be forced to wonder why the boy looked towards the east. It might be that the only possible place his life could restart is in the east, it may also be that east is the cause of his sorrow.

“At Fifteen I Went With The Army” is a poem written by an unknown Chinese poet but translated by Arthur Waley. This’ another example of poem written about war or communal attack; (naijapoets has analyzed similar Continue reading At Fifteen I Went With The Army by Arthur Waley

Analysis Of The Anvil And The Hammer By Kofi Awoonor

This is another African poem that focuses its subject on the conflict of culture_ sharing the same theme with the poem titled “Piano and Drums” by Gabriel Okara.
One can hear the poem speaker’s willingness to balance both culture or lifestyle by saying in line 11-12 “Sew the old days for us, our fathers/ That we can wear them under our new garment”. The issue of colonialism is not out the picture in this poem “The Anvil and The Hammer” by Kofi Awoonor. The alien culture came into Africa via colonialism to mix with the ways of the Africans. The speaker in the poem found himself between the two opposite lifestyles which made him liken himself to an iron to be reshaped by the anvil and the hammer.

The poem is said to be cultural inclined with a colonial setting. Structurally, The Anvil and The Hammer by Kofi Awoonor is a free verse; a free verse is a poem that does not use consistent meter patterns, rhyme, Continue reading Analysis Of The Anvil And The Hammer By Kofi Awoonor

Simple Summary Of Native Son By Richard Wright

Native Son by Richard Wright is a prose whose setting is considered to be in Chicago among other settings such as the one-room abode of Mrs. Thomas, The Dalton’s rich abode, The Theatre, ….

In the novel “Native Son”, Richard Wright embraced verbosity in his attempt to detail the events in the poem; well though he made use of ironies, allusion, and foreshadowing among other recipes that spiced the novel.

The themes in the prose are interrelated; where one theme leads to another. The first and the motivating theme of the novel is the theme of ideological variance. The Thomas family and the Dalton are the symbols of different ideologies; where the Thomas belonged to the poor African-American side of the story while the Dalton belonged to the wealthy high class of Continue reading Simple Summary Of Native Son By Richard Wright

The Seafarer By Ezra Pound; Analyzed

Ezra Pound was a poet born on the October 30, 1885, in Hailey, Idaho, United States of America. He’s generally considered the poet most responsible for defining and promoting a modernist aesthetic in poetry.

This lenghty line poem was originally written by an unknown Anglo-Saxon written but translated by Ezra Pound. It is in a free verse which maybe as a result of translation. The poem can be categorized under ship and sea; which makes it possess a sea setting.

Line 1-5: May I confess of this journey’s hardship which I endured.

Line 6-8: While the sea tossed, I endured the “dire sea-surge” and spent “Narrow night watch nigh the ship’s head”.

Line 9-14: I was afflicted by cold; cold numbed my feet, the chains are cold, “chafing sighs hew my heart round” and in my tired mood I suffered hunger. How I wish people knew that living on land is better than the sea; most especially the ice-cold sea.

Line 15-20: I tried withstand the winter, looked so wretched like an outcast witho Continue reading The Seafarer By Ezra Pound; Analyzed

Castle Of Otranto By Horace Walpole (Brief Overview)

To remind you that Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole is the first Gothic fiction will seem like a needless repetition because virtually everybody knows that. The Castle of Otranto was published in 1764 during the period called “Age of Reason”.

The Castle of Otranto is built around Manfred’s desperation to uphold his beloved status. The book begins on the wedding-day of his sickly son Conrad and princess Isabella. Shortly before the wedding, however, Conrad is crushed to death by a gigantic helmet that falls on him from above. This inexplicable event is particularly ominous in light of an ancient prophecy “That the castle and lordship of Otranto should pass from the present family, whenever the real owner should be grown too large to inhabit it”. Manfred, terrified that Conrad’s death signals the beginning of the end for his line, resolves to avert destruction by marrying Isabella himself while divorcing his current wife Hippolita, who he feels has failed to bear him a proper heir.

[THEME 1] The Castle:- The castle can be tagged one of the themes of the novel The Castle of Otranto. The title and the context of the story in totality give the castle another dimension. It can also be added that the castle is almost a hyperbole in itself. The disproportionate size of the castle has such a central and important role. The castle does not really continue reading>>>

3 Themes In The Blood Of A Stranger By Dele Charley

Common components in a tragic drama are greed, deceit, betrayal, crime, etc. and another universally known drama to support this claim is “Othello” written by William Shakespeare. In the drama “Othello” we see the greedy Iago with all sorts of betrayal attempts on Othello, Cassio, Montano, etc.

“The Blood of a Stranger” by Dele Charley is sure a tragedy in the sense that all the evildoers in Mandoland reaped the reward of their evil accordingly; where Kindo killed Parker as a way of avenging Soko’s death; the same Kindo also beheaded Whithead (the corrupt and greedy white man who came to Mando with the aim of exploiting their diamond).

3 Among the Themes in The Blood of a Stranger are:
1. Corruption and the aftermath of corruption: Virtually all the trusted leaders in Mandoland are corrupt. Their corrupt spirits are ignited by greed and the need to amass the wealth even at the expense of the villagers. Whitehead, whom the villagers_ at first, rebuked his arrival_ became a glorified figure in Mandoland, after falsely informing the people he came to create a tobacco farm in Mandoland. Maligu also capitalized on Santigi’s reliance of his wisdom, as a sure tool to mastermind the corruption in the village. Soko, the trusted priest of the people, was also lured with ambition of becoming rich; Maligu convinced him Continue reading 3 Themes In The Blood Of A Stranger By Dele Charley

A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry (Difference Between Mama And Walter)

It is the story of a poor black American family that suddenly got the opportunity to transform its state of living with a $10,000 insurance cheque issued the family as their deceased father’s life insurance policy. Different ideas surfaced towards the use of the money which almost led to huge disagreement in the family.

In a tabular form, let’s examine the difference between Mama and Walter.

Mama Walter
(1) Mama is Walter’s mother (1) Walter is a son to Mama
(2) Mama is moral and ambitious (2) Walter is desperate and ambitious
(3) Mama’s strong belief in Christianity belief is revealed in the play (3) Walter’s religious belief is not noted
(4) Mama is a very compassionate woman even when Walter lost part of the insurance money to his doomed investment, Mama treated him like a prodigal son (4) Walter is a character so adamant and sticks to his own believe alone
(5) Mama’s passion is to give her family a better life by providing them a conducive place to live (5) Walter’s passion is to give his family a better life by investing the insurance money

Mama and Walter Continue reading A Raisin In The Sun By Lorraine Hansberry (Difference Between Mama And Walter)

Detail Analysis Of My Parents Kept Me From Children Who Were Rough By Stephen Spender

“My Parents Kept Me From Children Who Were Rough” is a poem written by Stephen Spender; an English poet born 28-02-1909 in Kensington but died at the age of 86 year old on 16-07-1995.

Stephen Spender was a huge fan of literature and art. He was very friendly and his friendship aligned with the proverb that says “Birds of the same feathers fly together”.

Wikipedia says and I quote: “Spender was acquainted with fellow Auden Group members Louis MacNeice, Edward Upward and Cecil Day-Lewis. He was friendly with David Jones and later came to know W. B. Yeats, Allen Ginsberg, Ted Hughes, Joseph Brodsky, Isaiah Berlin, Mary McCarthy, Roy Campbell, Raymond Chandler, Dylan Thomas, Jean-Paul Sartre, F. T. Prince and T. S. Eliot, as well as members of the Bloomsbury Group, in particular Virginia Woolf.”

“My Parents Kept Me From Children Who Were Rough” talks about the poet’s childhood experience with bullies. The twelve line poem which is divided into three stanzas of equal lines per stanza, explained how the poet was bullies by a group of superior but inferior. It further explained that bitter words and muscular strength are their bullying tools. It concluded the poem with one of the everlasting effects on a bully victim; which is lack of forgiveness.

According to stanza one, his parents kept him from those bully boys because the harshly mismanaged the spoken words, they were poor wearing “rags”, and “They ran the street” “And climbed cliffs and stripped by country streams”.

Second stanza, the poet feared the bullies because of their strength and many times they’d beaten him.

In stanza three, they really tormented him; haunted him like by appearing when he least expected. They even threw mud at him.

The poem is categorized under youthful recollection and it has a well planned structure, simple dictions, and physical human setting with the use of “street” “climbed cliffs” “country streams” “on the road” “behind hedges” “mud” etc.

The central theme in the poem is bullying but other themes of note are lack of forgiveness, fear, superiority, inferiority and poverty.
The poet was Continue reading Detail Analysis Of My Parents Kept Me From Children Who Were Rough By Stephen Spender

Deep Analysis Of Lullaby By W H Auden

Lullaby is a soothing song intended to lull a child to sleep. In the poem “Lullaby” by W. H. Auden, two crucial subjects were placed side-by-side; love and lullaby.

With the notion of the poem, lullaby is the best way to love which surpassed outward appreciation, nighttime sensual moments and cohabitational responsibilities. Auden saw no certainty in other things than lullaby.

He believed that time and sickness destroy youthfulness and its accompanied hopefulness through aging and dying; that’s why the night his lover lie on his arms was worth everything to him.

Auden accepted the strong emotionality within romantic ecstasy but failed to attach importance to such ecstasy because it was gravy. Such ecstasy leads to other things like parenting:

“Soul and body have no bounds: 
To lovers as they lie upon 
Her tolerant enchanted slope 
In their ordinary swoon, 
Grave the vision Venus sends 
Of supernatural sympathy, 
Universal love and hope; 
While abstract insight wakes 
Among the glaciers and the rocks 
The hermit’s sensual ecstasy.”

In stanza 3, Auden explained that although lovemaking as a means of quenching the cry of boredom, only last a very short period of time “like vibrations Continue reading Deep Analysis Of Lullaby By W H Auden

Elegy Written In A Country Churchyard by Thomas Gray (Summary)

Thomas Gray was an English poet and among other things, a professor at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He was born 1716 but departed the earth 1771.

A book cannot be judged by its cover but according to the notion of the poem speaker, status of a dead person can be judged by the nature of his or her grave.

By looking at the graves in a certain country churchyard, the poem speaker concluded that they were poor alive which led to the sympathetic feeling towards them.

The journey of life comes to halt with death and such is buttressed in the poem. The poem speaker reminds the readers that death is inevitable and comes to everyone irrespective of class, age or status.

The poet through imagery sets the mood of finality that depicts an end to an ongoing activity. This state of finality is reflected in the significance of the images of the “curfew”, the “lowing herd” and the “plowman” who, in their various activities, indicate an end of action, a span of life as it were. Thus in “tolls and knell of parting day”, “wind Continue reading Elegy Written In A Country Churchyard by Thomas Gray (Summary)

Overview Of We Shall Not Sleep By Chirikure Chirikure

Chirikure Chirikure is a Zimbabwean poet, songwriter, and writer born in the year 1962. The poet’s name is relevant in African poetry circle and in 1990, Chirikure’s book “Rukuvhute” received Honorable Mention in the Noma Award for Publishing in Africa.

The style adopted in crafting the poem is similar to that of Birago Diop’s fondly used of refrain. The thematic message in the poem is based on oppression and opposition.

The voice in the poem sounds protesting the evil deeds of unnamed oppre Continue reading Overview Of We Shall Not Sleep By Chirikure Chirikure

Analysis Of My Busconductor By Roger McGough

This thirty three line poem begins with an abstract voice telling the readers about his busconductor who soon will depart this heart as a result of kidney failure. From line 5-18, the poem speaker tells that all the things that used to amount to nothing in the eyes of the busconductor became important while those cherished things became uninteresting to the busconductor:-
“Each busticket
takes on now a different shape
and texture.
He holds a ninepenny single
as if it were a rose
and puts the shilling in his bag
as a child into a gasmeter.
His thin lips
have no quips
for fat factorygirls
and he ignores
the drunk who snores
and the oldman who talks to himself
and gets off at Continue reading Analysis Of My Busconductor By Roger McGough

Analysis Of Absence By Pablo Neruda

Absence by Pablo Neruda has the theme of love and optimism. Neruda composed the poem on the ground of love; based on the context of the poem, we see two lovers without close contact. While the female feels hurt, the poem speaker composed this reassuring poem to prove that his love for her remains intact. Last stanza of the poem shows the optimistic nature of the poet:
“But wait for me, 
Keep for me your sweetness. 
I will give you too 
A rose.”

Structurally, the poem titled “Absence” by Pablo Neruda is a multiple stanza free verse. The title of the poem makes the message straightforward. Where one lover worries about the long absence of his or her lover. It may not be appropriate to specify a setting for the poem but the subject in discussion deals with emotional condition tabled in front of the readers in the form of love letter. The tone is very sweet, wooing, and assuring.

Let’s make a stanza-by-stanza explanation of this simple poem. The first stanza shows that the poet began Continue reading Analysis Of Absence By Pablo Neruda

Preoccupation Of Oswald Mtshali In Nightfall In Soweto

The violence and all forms of crimes perpetrated at night by the white against the black in the poem titled “Night Fall In Soweto” are the things that preoccupied Oswald Mtshali.

With the use of simile, the poet referrred to nightfall as a “dreaded disease”. The agents of the nightfall acrocities are shown “lurking in the shadow” and “clasping a dagger” awaiting their victims.

From the first person point of view, the readers of the poem are told that the poem speaker is one of the victim:
“I am the victim”
“I am the prey”
“I am slaughtered”

Urgency for survival made Oswald Mtshali seek means of escape. He put his worries in form Continue reading Preoccupation Of Oswald Mtshali In Nightfall In Soweto

Theme Of Hopelessness In Futility By Wilfred Owen

Though the poem is about a soldier’s untimely death in war, the poem uses this forum to make a general observation about the hopeless situation of human existence. The poet is in a serious and sombre mood. The tone is that of regret. A highly philosophical poem in the sense that it attempts to portray the futility and meaninglessness of human mortality. The sun is generally seen as a life-sustaining agent but the poet wonders why the sun toils ceaselessly to sustain this meaningless life.

In the poets view, life is futile. There is no worthwhile hope in the life of men. When the poem speaker finally realizes that the soldier is dead, he resorts to rhetorical questions as a means to emphasize the futility of human life and to express his anxieties and distress about the dying soldier.

Are limbs, so dear-achieved, are sides

Full-nerved-still warm-too hard to stir?

Was it for this the clay grew tall?

O what made fatuous sunbeams toil

To break earth’s sleep at all?

In the above lines, there is a focus on the helpless soldier who lies motionless. A man who Continue reading Theme Of Hopelessness In Futility By Wilfred Owen

Analysis of Katerina: An Angel In The Flesh by Femi Fani Kayode

THE ANALYSIS:-

“Katerina: An Angel In The Flesh” is a descriptive love poem that embraced the instrument of praise and prayer.

The most part of the poem described Femi Fani Kayode’s Katerina as an extraordinary beauty; using the same hyperbolical language of William Shakespeare’s craftiness. The ending part of the poem carry some hope words that are tabled in form of prayer.

Few of the poetic devices in the poem are enjambment (as ideas or expressions flow beyond a single line), simile (many comparisons are made in the poem using “like” for instance “Your Continue reading Analysis of Katerina: An Angel In The Flesh by Femi Fani Kayode

Analysis Of Ozymandias By Percy Bysshe Shelley

Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley in terms of the antique trait of the poem, it reminds me of the poem titled “Relic” by Ted Hughes. There are two different sonnets having the same title (Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley and Ozymandias by Horace Smith) but the one on our discussion table is about one of the sculpt images of the Greek ruler found by an archeologist in a desert which assumed to be a kingdom gone to extinction.
The image was a shattered statue remaining only the face of the Greek king. Where beneath the stone image was written:
‘My name is Ozymandias, king of kings:
Look on my works, ye Mighty, and despair!’

The poem titled “Ozymandias” is a sonnet, written in loose iambic pentameter, where the first stanza has eight lines and six lines for the second stanza. Most sonnets end in a rhyming couplet but this is an exception. Both stanzas are dedicated to the description of the stone image. In stanza one, readers are given a clear picture of how the statue was found, the damage that had befallen the statue, the pride and arrogance portrayed by the statue, etc.

The following are the themes of the poem:-
(1) Futility of wealth and status: With the little that is left to remind the Continue reading Analysis Of Ozymandias By Percy Bysshe Shelley

Analysis Of O Captain My Captain By Walt Whitman

Structurally, this twenty four line poem is divided into three equal stanza of eight lines per stanza. For the record, Walt Whitman is known for his unpredictable rhythm and rhyme scheme. Though the poem has some evidence of end rhyme scheme,  word arrangement looks wobbling and irregular like the current of the ocean. It is no surprise that the poem took such arrangement since the poem has a sea setting with the use of words such as “shore” “ship” “Captain” “vessel” “voyage” “deck”.

This poem falls under the category of war poem but the fact that it is an elegy cannot be denied. The poem speakers indirectly mourns the death of his captain who has fallen in battle. Speaking with ignorance, the poet calls on his dead captain as he was sleeping, asking him to rise up; after which he tells the readers through his contrasting refrain that “…my Captain lies/ Fallen cold and dead”.

In stanza 1, the speaker notifies his captain that the battle is over and won. Stanza 2 tells the captain of the crowd at shore happily ready to celebrate with him. Stanza 3 is where the speaker of the poem hit the nail in the head by coming into reality:
“My Captain does not answer, his lips are pale and still
My father does not feel my arm, he has no pulse nor will;
The ship is anchor’d safe and sound, its voyage closed and done,
From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with Continue reading Analysis Of O Captain My Captain By Walt Whitman

Analysis Of Advertising By A S J Tessimond

Literature is the mirror of life and poetry is a vital element for its reflections. A. S. J. Tessimond in the poem “Advertising” showcased what the motive behind advertisements in a poetic way. The poet prove that advert is conversion (it shows the seller has better knowledge than the consumer in terms of the products that will be of usefulness to the consumer)

The use of punctuation marks in the poem signifies a lot. Question mark used in line 10 is basically to clear the buyers’ doubt on the hyperbole seen between lines 9-10 (Who tells you that ten million men have long/ Called a stone bread_ and can ten million men be wrong?) Exclamation mark used in lines 3-4 is to command the actions, to compel the emotions, to further push the desires of the buyer.

In accordance with the voice of the poem speaker, the poem has an affirming, commanding, and assuring tone. Like a soothsayer, the voice of the poem shows that the seller or advertiser knows the buyer or consumer better than himself or herself. With the use of metaphors the speaker placed himself or herself higher than the buyer by saying:
“I am your wish and I its answer.
I am the drum and you the dancer.
I am the trumpet-voice, the Stentor.
I am temptation, I the Mentor”

The quoted lines above also carry some anaphora. There are instances of word repetition; words like “voice” “men” “save” “spend” “turning”. Alliterations in the poem are “gleam or glint” in line 1. “the almost-gems Continue reading Analysis Of Advertising By A S J Tessimond

Analysis Of Ode To The West Wind By Percy Bysshe Shelley

Percy B. Shelley was an English Romantic poet born on the 4th of August 1792 at West Sussex, England. He died at the tender age of 29 years old on the 8th of July 1822 in Italy.

Ode to the West Wind by Percy Bysshe Shelley is a praise poem written to portray the sweetness of influence and power possession though many poetry analysts have suggested all sorts of motives. Some have claimed it’s an elegy others have claimed otherwise; amidst diverse claims, what if Wikipedia has things to say?

Which brings us to the question: what does wikipedia has to say about the motive of Shelley in the poem “Ode to the West Wind”? The knowledge archive stood on the fact that the poet’s previous poems (The Masque of Anarchy, Prometheus Unbound, and England in 1819) share the same subject opinion with the one on discussion Continue reading Analysis Of Ode To The West Wind By Percy Bysshe Shelley

Compare And Contrast Birches By Robert Frost And The Schoolboy by William Blake

Differences:-
(1) Background. The poets share differences in territorial background; William Blake was an English poet born in Broadwick St. Soho, London. While Robert Frost was an American poet born in San Francisco, California.

(2) Plot. Both poems go different direction in terms of narration. The Schoolboy by William Blake talks about child who preferred informal education to the mandatory formal education enforced on him by his parents; while Birches by Robert Frost speaks of his delightful childhood experience of swinging birches Continue reading Compare And Contrast Birches By Robert Frost And The Schoolboy by William Blake

Analysis Of Vanity By Birago Diop

Birago Diop is one among the poets of culture. The following poems of his_ Vanity, Breath, etc. are prove of his love for African customs and norms. He was a Senegalese poet of African folktales and folklores who lived between 11 December 1906 and 25 November 1989. Till this day, his name has never been undermined when mentioning the pioneer figures of the Négritude literary movement.

As a faithful steward of African tutelage, Birago Diop understood the implications of paying deaf ears and lip services to the deep rooted ways of the forefathers. In the poem vanity, Birago Diop cried out his regrets for himself and the contemporary Africans who have belittled the African tradition by cherishing and glorifying the alien cultural lifestyle. He didn’t forget to mention that those who had downgraded their African root suffered it; leaving the signs of their punishment everywhere:
“Just as our ears were deaf
To their cries, to their wild appeals
They have left on the earth their cries
In the air, on the water, where they have traced their signs
For us blind deaf and unworthy Sons”

This thirty line poem, chopped into multiple stanzas, has an unhappy tone and candidly Continue reading Analysis Of Vanity By Birago Diop

How To Excel In Literature-In-English Examination

Speaking generally about Literature-in-English examinations, not excluding WAEC, NECO, GCE, etc.

Two simple facts are necessary for excellence in the examination to be guaranteed, they are (i) Studying according to the recommended texts (ii) Understanding the  monotonous style of the questions.

(#1) To Study According To Recommended Texts:-
Taking West African Literature-in-English examination as a case study, it is necessary for any candidate willing to sit for WAEC, NECO or GCE to lay hold of the recommended texts and study them carefully. Having the appropriate syllabus will be a wise step towards success; the word “appropriate” must be of note since WAEC for example, does change her Literature-In-English syllable at a specific interval (precisely every four years) which means that some texts that are found helpful Continue reading How To Excel In Literature-In-English Examination

Analysis Of Leaving Town By James Reeves

Leaving Town by James Reeves is a fourteen-line descriptive poem. It describes the reactions of people of a certain town (referred to as "we') who aims to leave the town after a certain natural disaster (maybe earthquake or volcano) but their attempts seems hopeless as a result of the huge damage and rush of people to escape.

The poem is straightforward. The line one of the poem opposes the title of the poem. Though the poem is titled "Leaving Town" but the opening line of the poem immediately tells the reader that such will not happen: "It was impossible to leave the town"(says line 1) then the further part of the poem shows the reasons behind the impossibility. From the tone of the poet, it is evident that impatience has mixed with confusion in their state of urgency; escape is necessary but unattainable.

"We finished in a little cul-de-sac" (in line 11)
According to the dictionary, a cul-de-sac is a street with an opening at one end only; a blind alley.
In respect to line 11, the poet says that the damage turns the town into a one way street having a bottleneck entrance and exit as a result of the congested traffic.

"And like Hesperides the suburbs seemed"
The line means that the Continue reading Analysis Of Leaving Town By James Reeves

Analysis Of Music By Charles Baudelaire

The Poet:-

Charles Baudelaire is a French author and poet who lived forty six years on earth between 1821 and 1867. One among his notable poetry works is Les Fleurs Du Mal (The Flowers Of Evil)

Denotation:-

This poem gives a detailed experience of sailing; it talks about the foggy experience on the sea, the endless view of the sea, the waves waging war against the ship, the continuous sound of the ropes against the rigged mast of the ship, the calmness of the seas (which metaphorical was likened to a mirror). At the opening of the poem, the poet likened himself to a ship and likened music to a sailing experience on the sea. Music lifts the poet the same way the sea lifts the ship.

Connotation:-

The themes evident in the poem are (i) the memorable experience of sailing (ii) the beautiful impacts of music.

Structurally, it must be said that the poem has a sea setting though the title and introduction depict music. it is a four stanza poem where the first line rhymes with the third line to portray an end rhyming scheme of ABAB ABAB. The first stanza contains four lines, the second stanza contains four lines, the third stanza contains three lines and fourth stanza contains three lines.

To summarize by each stanza, the stanza 1 says of how music is like sailing a ship, the stanza 2 further says of the poet push through music like Continue reading Analysis Of Music By Charles Baudelaire

Deep Analysis Of Preludes By T. S. Eliot

According to the English Dictionary from wiktionary.org, "Prelude is an introductory or preliminary performance or event; a preface." In that wise, the title of the poem suggests the poet’s motivation towards creating the popular poem "Preludes".

No wonder the poet concluded the poem metaphorically by comparing the rotational flow of each day to the consistently laborious ancient women: "The worlds revolve like ancient women/ Gathering fuel in vacant lots". Still on the title of the poem, the poet pluralised the title to show how continuous and consistent the events of days are.

Preludes by T. S. Eliot is a poem that reflects on the monotonously programmed phases of earthly day-by-day; using the dusk to dawn issues (as the dusk introduces humans to the end of a day so does the dawn introduces humans to the beginning of a new day then in such manner the earthly wheel of time moves on). The poem is divided into four (4) parts: part 1 about dusk for instance line 1-4 "The winter evening settles down/ With smell of steaks in passageways/ Six o’clock/ The burnt-out ends of smoky days". Part 2 about dawn for instance line 14-16 "The morning comes to consciousness/ Of faint stale smells of beer/ From the sawdust-trampled street". Part 3 about nighttime for instance line 24-26 "You tossed a blanket from the bed/ You lay upon your back, and waited/ You dozed, and watched the night revealing". Part for 4 about daytime for instance the rest of the lines "His soul stretched tight across the skies/ That fade behind a city block/ Or trampled by insistent feet/ At four and five and six o’clock/ And short square fingers stuffing pipes/ And evening newspapers, and eyes/ Assured of certain certainties/ The conscience of a blackened street/ Impatient to assume the world/ I am moved by fancies that are curled/ Around these images, and cling/ The notion of some infinitely gentle/ Infinitely suffering thing/ Wipe your hand across your mouth, and laugh/ The worlds revolve like ancient women/ Gathering fuel in vacant lots ".

Judging from Continue reading Deep Analysis Of Preludes By T. S. Eliot

Rainy Season Love Song by Acquah Laluah

Out of the tense awed darkness my Frangipani comes
While the blades of Heaven flash round her and the roll of thunder drums
My young heart leaps and dances with exquisite joy and pain
As storm within and storm without I meet my love in the rain

The rain is in love with you darling: ’tis kissing you everywhere
Rain pattering o’er your small brown feet rain in your curly hair
Rain in the vale that your twin breasts make as in delicate mounds they rise
I hope there is rain in your heart Frangipani as rain half fills your eyes

Into my arms she cometh and the lightning of my desire
Flashes and leaps about her more subtle than Heaven’s fire.
"The lightning’s in love with you darling it is loving you so much
That its electricity pulses in you wherever I may touch.

When I kiss your lips and your eyes and your hands like twin flowers apart
I know there is lightning Continue reading Rainy Season Love Song by Acquah Laluah

Analyzed Somewhere I Have Never Travelled Gladly Beyond By E. E. Cummings

E. E. Cummings is an American poet painter, essayist, author, and a playwright. Judging by the dominance of the theme of love in most of his poetry crafts, Cummings should be called the Shakespeare among his poetry colleagues.

The poem "Somewhere I Have Never Traveled Gladly Beyond" tells of the immense power of love with the alluring image of "eyes" and "rose" and "rain" and "flower". Such theme is largely covered in this poem of twenty lines divided into five stanzas of four lines per stanza.

The first stanza says of the attraction caused by seductive eyes and gesture which the poet has never before witnessed.

According to the second stanza, the feelings the poet tried to hide due to fear and shyness are forced open the same way a Spring time opens her first rose so (touching skilfully,mysteriously).

In stanza Continue reading Analyzed Somewhere I Have Never Travelled Gladly Beyond By E. E. Cummings

Character And Significance Of Mary Dalton In Native Son By Richard Wright

The problem of Bigger Thomas was simply of dissatisfaction until he came into proximity with Mary Dalton which broaden his criminal trait by turning him into a murderer.

The impact of Mary Dalton in the novel cannot be overemphasized knowing that Native Son by Richard Wright is a story that narrates relationship differences in terms of race, status, and ideology; therefore the murder of Mary Dalton via suffocation made the storyline more intense and interesting.

"I’ve been to England, France, and Mexico, but I don’t know how people live ten blocks from me" said Mary in page 101. Her statement was a prove of huge class differences in the novel.

In an environment where the white is superior to the black and any complain of Continue reading Character And Significance Of Mary Dalton In Native Son By Richard Wright

The Panic Of Growing Older By Lenrie Peters

The Panic of Growing Older is a poem that can be categorized under growth and living. Its context is partly scientific and mainly biological since biology is the study of all life or living matters.

This poem is a creative effort of Lenrie Peters (1932 – 2009), a multi talented Gambian citizen who was widely known to be an author, a singer, a broadcaster, and to crown it all; a medical doctor.

The poem tabled the human sequences of aging and its accompanied fear. An adult in his twenties_ uses his one sided view of life, to occupy himself with sweet simple fantasized gigantic expectations until he clocks thirty and then reality begins to set in. All the simple expectations and hopes seem hard to attain while aging approach quicker than blinks.

With the sincere tone of the poem, a sober mood of realization is created through the 32 lines of the poem; in which the 8 stanzas are quatrains mostly linked by enjambments.

Stanzaic summary:-
Stanza 1 means that the fear of aging increases by year. Stanza 2 implies that one will be filled with sweet hope at twenty. Stanza 3 says the expectations began to wane. Stanza 4 adds more implication of growing older where one has long hours Continue reading The Panic Of Growing Older By Lenrie Peters

Analysis Of In The Navel Of The Soul By Kobena Acquah

Ideological differences can be seen in the poem titled: In The Navel Of The Soul by Kobena Acquah as the voice of the poem favours the traditional way in comparison with the scientific way. This is also another poem with a cultural clash; almost similar to poems like The Anvil And The Hammer by Kofi Awoonor, Piano And Drums by Gabriel Okara, Young Africa’s Plea by Dennis Osadebay, etc. The issue of pregnancy detection is the discussion in the poem where pregnancy is determined through the local African way while western scientific way says opposite leading to the argument of proficiency.

Kobena Eyi Acquah is a Ghanaian poet born in the year 1952. He is also a legal practitioner educated at the University of Ghana and the Ghana Law School. Now it is no surprise that Kobena created a poem with a debatable opinion or view.

A quick summary of the eight stanzas of the poem "In The Navel Of The Soul" go thus:-

Stanza one says that it is possible for a traditional birth-giver to detect pregnancy by a mere touch on the tommy.

The stanza two say that the medical practitioner’s urine test, accompanied with other biological signs and observation say negative.

Then the third stanza says but the traditional birth-giver can feel a baby in Continue reading Analysis Of In The Navel Of The Soul By Kobena Acquah

Harvest Of Corruption By Frank Ogbeche (2 Themes)

This post is to discuss two of the most vital themes in Harvest Of Corruption by Frank Ogodo Ogbeche. This is a drama set in Jacassa to show how greed leads to the abuse of privileges and power. There are two factions; the evildoers versus the evil-fighters.

Getting to the themes, we have:
(1) Corrupt Practices and the end results:-
In the drama, Chief Haladu Ade-Amaka took the privilege of being the Minister for External Relations as a reason to get greedy. With false promises and illicit enticements, the chief gathered people to be his "pawns"; the likes of Aloho, Ochuole, Madam Hoha, Justice Odili, the Police Commissioner, etc.
By the time the drama will draw to close, every corrupt entities have got their own shares of rewards. Chief Haladu Ade-Amaka was brought to book with the faithful assistant of ACP Yakubu, Prosecution Counsel and the rightful court of law. Chief Ade-Amaka was sentenced to twenty-five years in jail confinement with hard labour. Aloho lost her life and unwanted pregnancy. Akpara Hotel was closed and Madam Hoha was given ten years in imprisonment the same as Ochuole, etc.

(2) Morality exults in all situations:-
A moral heart never gives in to greed as seen in the drama, while Aloho was highly carried away by all that Ochuole (their ex-schoolmate) had acquired, it didn’t move Ogeyi at all.
Ogeyi wasn’t the only one unsatisfied with the corrupt acts going on in Jacassa, the drama showed Inspector Inaku, ACP Yakubu, even Showboy (the madman) as other characters against the injustices happening. It Continue reading Harvest Of Corruption By Frank Ogbeche (2 Themes)

Analysis Of Tempest By Glynn Burridge

This poem by Glynn Burridge is of a sailing experience (a very stormy sailing experience). Though short (8 lines) but descriptive with the byproduct of careful imageries. The poem persona shows the relationship between sky and sea; meaning a cloudy sky can cause a stormy sea. The ship contending the storm was described as old made with woods from a long forgotten forest. The sky was described as dark and cloudy with a hovering bird called a phantom. The sea was described to be stormy, wicked and angry almost drowning the ship.

In the poem, one see the ship, the ocean, the sky, the hovering bird; all with the used image of sight and sound ("old sailing beauty" in line 1, "Yaws dizzily in her century-old duel with a drunken sea" in line 2, "wind-tormented waves and a leaden sky", "in pained falsetto", "riotous rendez-vous", etc.

The poem speaker not only view the sea as animate; metaphorically, Continue reading Analysis Of Tempest By Glynn Burridge

Song Of Sorrow 1 And 2 By Kofi Awoonor (Imagery)

Born on March 13, 1935, Kofi Awoonor was a Ghanaian poet and author well-known for combining the poetic traditions of his native Ewe with contemporary and religious symbolism to create a unique form of writing. He died after sustaining injuries during the attack by Somali militant group, al-Shabaab at Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya on September 21, 2013.

“Song of Sorrow 1 and 2 is a pessimistic poem. It is a dirge in which the living blame the ancestors for the hardship and difficulties that their departure has left behind. Much of this meaning is conveyed through several important images used in the poem.

The desolation and helplessness that has occurred is presented right at the beginning of the Song of Sorrow 1 in the form of “chameleon faeces”. The image is appropriate as it conjures up the picture of something that cannot be wiped away or made clean. It is this catastrophe that is emphasized by the use of this image.

A series of other images closely associated with desolation, destruction and even death, is used in successive parts Continue reading Song Of Sorrow 1 And 2 By Kofi Awoonor (Imagery)

Mad Girl’s Love Song By Sylvia Plath

The speaker is a lover with a very deep feeling of love for someone (which could be male or female) the poem did not specify.

In a nut shell, Sylvia Plath wrote this poem in form of villanelle. When a poem has 6 stanzas (where the first 5 stanzas are 3 lines each and the last stanza is 4 lines) of which line 1 is repeated in line 6, 12, 18 and line 3 is repeated in line 9, 15, 19; such a poem is referred to as a villanelle.

To summarize the poem, "It seems I made you up in my brain because you left me too soon when your love inside of me was still very fresh and strong; leaving me with the hope that you shall soon come back to me until now I became old and could no longer recollect your name.

Whenever I remember how Continue reading Mad Girl’s Love Song By Sylvia Plath

5 Poems Of Gabriel Eziorobo

Below are few poems of Gabriel Eziorobo:-

#1 A CLUE
I really don’t know
a secret in you,
because i was a baby
in his mother womb,
for nine months
without seeing the sun,
pondering day and night
thinking of what to do,
luckily for me
i fell asleep
in a secret town
surrounded with art
full of branches
with a secret in it
i find myself
a clue in it,
with the four-letters
everything is open.

#2 LIME-LIGHT
Every time i touches the light
i see you in the lime-light of my heart,
so deep in my heart
deeper than the ocean.

Every time i wanna say hi to you,
your eyes will be sleeping
in the night
so i felt,i was a pest to you
not to allow your eyes
to sleep well in the night
so i walk away
to the mountain
to fast and pray
for you to see the lime-light
in my heart,
so deep in my heart
deeper than the ocean.

#3 LIKE A RIVER
I was angry
in and out of me,
flowing like a river
in the river-side,
where it started
like a tumour
to my heart,
my heart was full of anger,
pumping in and out of me
like a river
in the river-side,
where i find her
the guilding angel
of my heart,
she is the one
or maybe she is
the healer
of my sickness,
i was wandering
like a river
in the river-side,
i find happiness with her.

#4 THE NIGHT
The night is dark
so the beauty
of the earth
is down.

The night is scary
and those who wake-up
are the survivals.

The night is the spirit-battle
so the night ask;
how was your-night?
How many people are alive?
How many people are dead?

#5 WONDER WONDER
My heart ceases
to function
so my brain
stops to think
so i wonder wonder,
where will i be?

The beauty,
of the earth
is fading
so the birds sing ah!ah!ah!
So i wonder wonder,
what does the song mean?

The drummers drum
so the dancers dance
to the rhythm of the drum
so i wonder wonder,
what is the rhythm of the drum?

Gabriel Eziorobo is a passionate poet, short story writer, and a fictional playwright. A contemporary Nigerian literature talent. Search him on Facebook to be his fan.

Analysis of Kwashiorkor By Moses Opara

Opara introduced the readers to the poem by sharing his encounter with a beautiful child suffering from kwashiorkor down a shallow street:
"I saw a beautiful child
Down a shallow street"

The poet continues by telling the readers about the child’s swollen belly, bow legs, starved head and smiles which depicted that the child wore a kwashiorkor look. All these portrayed by the poet are signs of malnutrition that leads to kwashiorkor in children:
"With swollen belly, bow legs and starved head
His smiles wore a kwashiorkor look"

The poets feels pity for the child and his/her condition of malnutrition and hunger.
The child’s voice is fainting every day and his heart no longer wants to move on. He is fighting to stay alive and also fighting the fears in his heart.

The child is malnourished as a result of poverty and drought:
"With fainting voice, he sighed in his heart
He was playing with the dust of despair
Fighting the crawling Continue reading Analysis of Kwashiorkor By Moses Opara

The Analysis Of Shakespeare By Matthew Arnold

Matthew Arnold uses the medium of his poem titled: "Shakespeare" to eulogize William Shakespeare by telling the readers about Shakespeare’s life and time. The poet opens with,
"Others abide our question. Thou art free
We ask and ask, thou smiles and act still,
Out-topping knowledge for the loftiest art"
He tells us about the knowledge of Shakespeare, and how his works reflects his identity. Others can’t skip their questions but he is free.

In line 4, the poet tells us that Shakespeare is like a king, and he is also steadfast and strong in his art. His dwelling place is in the heaven of heavens where he finds peace.
"Making the heaven if heavens his dwelling place
Spares but the cloudy border of his base,
To the foil searching of immortality"

The poet in eulogizing Shakespeare, said that the stars and sunbeam know him. He did not rise to prominence through school, he self-schooled, self-scanned, self-honoured and self-secured himself. He didn’t allow Continue reading The Analysis Of Shakespeare By Matthew Arnold

Piano And Drums By Gabriel Okara

The Nigerian poet, Gabriel Okara who wrote the popular poem “Piano and Drums” hailed from Bayelsa state. He was born in the 1921. He was once a civil servant among many other career parts.

“Piano and Drums” as poem is symbolism of the poet’s dilemma in a position of cultural clash. The idea of cultural clash is the motivating or central message the poem passes to the readers.

The “Piano” which symbolised the poet’s westernised present lifestyle was compared with the “Drums” which symbolised the past village background of the poet; the comparison of the poet’s past with present way of living is referred to as the class of culture (since culture is defined as the lifestyle of a Continue reading Piano And Drums By Gabriel Okara

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